The Price of Poverty

Update 414: The Price of Poverty

Before we go to Las Vegas, the site of tonight’s Democratic presidential debate, let’s have a look at what happens when wages are lost to layoffs or when luck turns and a car wreck or a diagnosis pushes a family over the economic edge.

How many Americans are living on the edge and what solutions to the most vexing problems they face are being debated in Congress? We explore the issues of cash bail, interest rate caps, and surprising medical billing and prospective legislative solutions below.

Best,

Dana

_________________

Democrats’ 2020 economic message against Trump reflects a hard and cold economic fact: 40 percent of Americans would be hard-pressed to come up with even $400 to pay for an unexpected expense. This figure, from the Federal Reserve’s 2018 Survey of Household Economics and Decision Making, has become a vivid illustration of our divided economy.  

A few months ago, we detailed what Democrats plan to do about the problem and focused on the ongoing legislative push to allow taxpayers an advance on a portion of their Earned Income Tax Credit benefit. Below, we drill deeper into how costly it is to be poor in America. 

Cash Bail

On any given day in the U.S., about 535,000 individuals occupy city and county jails despite not having been convicted of a crime. These detainees comprise two-thirds of the country’s jail population and one-quarter of the total incarcerated population at the state and local levels. While a small number of defendants are detained pretrial as significant flight or public safety risk, over 90 percent of pretrial detainees are eligible for bail.  

But bail is prohibitively expensive for many people. Even with the use of a private bail bondsmen, who can post bail on a defendant’s behalf in exchange for a nonrefundable premium (usually equal to 10 percent of the bail amount), those at the bottom of the income distribution do not have the financial assets to qualify for pretrial release. Those released on bail tend to have pre-arrest incomes twice as high as their counterparts who remain in jail. 

Pretrial detention has a substantially negative economic impact on individuals, particularly defendants whose jobs are at risk or whose children require care. Pretrial detention leads to a higher likelihood of conviction, driven almost entirely by the increased likelihood of detainees pleading guilty. Pretrial detainees are also 32.2 percent more likely to be charged with a new offense and significantly less likely to be employed in subsequent years. If and when they do find work, their annual earnings are reduced by 40 percent, per a 2017 article in the Boston University Law Review.

Legislative state of play

  • In 2018, Senator Sanders introduced the No Money Bail Act, S. 3271. The bill would prohibit the use of money bail in federal cases, provide grants to states to implement alternate pretrial systems, and withhold grant funding from states that continue using cash bail systems. In the House, Rep. Ted Lieu (D-CA) introduced H.R. 4474 — also the No Money Bail Act — in September 2019.  

Interest Rate Caps

Many low-income earners face a paradox: they need credit, but high interest rates drive them deeper into poverty. Americans hold over $1 trillion in credit card debt, and the average interest rate stands at a historic high of 17.71 percent, per CreditCards.com. 12 million Americans rely on payday/short-term lending every year, and the average interest rate on a payday loan is 391 percent. Some payday lenders point borrowers into costly plans when alternatives are available. Workers are trapped in a cycle of borrowing, and poverty continues. 

Legislative state of play:

There is some precedent for nationwide interest rate caps. The 1980 Federal Credit Union Act capped interest rates on credit union loans to 15 percent, and in 1991, the Senate voted 74-19 to cap credit card rates at 14 percent (the legislation did not become law).

  • A bipartisan bill, the Veterans and Consumers Fair Credit Act of 2019, H.R. 5050/S. 2833, led by Reps. Jesús “Chuy” García (D-IL) and Glenn Grothman (R-WI) in the House and Democratic Sens. Brown and Merkley in the Senate, would extend the 36 percent APR interest rate cap on payday and car-title lenders in the Military Lending Act to cover all Americans. 
  • Progressive members of Congress, Sen. Sanders and Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez introduced the Loan Shark Prevention Act, H.R. 2930, which would establish a national usury rate of 15 percent on credit cards and other consumer loans. 

Surprise Medical Billing

Surprise medical bills can devastate a household’s finances. A 2018 survey cited by House Education and Labor Chair Bobby Scott found that 57 percent of consumers say they have received an unexpected medical bill that they thought was covered by insurance. Another survey found that seven in 10 patients who get expensive out-of-network medical bills were unaware that their provider was out-of-network at the time they received the services. 

Legislative state of play: 

  • Last week, the House Ways and Means Committee unanimously approved the Consumer Protections Against Surprise Medical Bills Act of 2020, H.R. 5826. This bill, led by Chair Neal and Ranking Member Brady, would establish an arbitration process for disputes between health care providers and insurers that are unable to agree on payments for out-of-network care. Trump even tweeted out his support, though an official White House endorsement is unlikely. 
  • Another bill, the Ban Surprise Billing Act, H.R. 5800, was approved 32-13 out of the House Education and Labor Committee. This legislation would go further than the Neal-Brady bill by setting a monetary threshold for arbitration to kick in and limiting cost-sharing to a plan’s in-network rate. Chair Scott and Ranking Member Foxx supported the bill, though four Democrats joined a group of Republicans to oppose it, arguing it would intervene in markets and raise costs on doctors and hospitals. A similar bill, S. 1985, was reported out of the Senate HELP committee with a 20-3 bipartisan majority. 

Political Opportunities

President Trump will likely run for re-election against the backdrop of economic numbers. The macroeconomy, juiced by tax cuts and low interest rates, looks durable on the surface; GDP growth is steady, unemployment is low, and the stock market is enjoying record highs. Digging beneath the surface though, the economy possesses significant weaknesses that Democrats will seek to remedy. Economic inequality has worsened during Trump’s tenure, and wages are stagnant while the cost of living continues to rise. 

The Democratic presidential hopefuls have campaigned on reducing wealth and income disparities, righting wrongs in the tax code, expanding the social safety net, and reforming the criminal justice system, arguing that these proposals are not just important moral but economic issues. Looking at just three issues — cash bail, the high cost of credit, and surprise medical bills — Democrats are rightly focused on the needs of disadvantaged Americans. If these issues are spotlighted during the general election, Democrats may have a larger audience than meets the eye. 

80 thoughts on “The Price of Poverty”

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  31. Throughout the grand design of things you receive a B+ with regard to effort and hard work.
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  32. In the grand scheme of things you’ll secure
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    Your authoring is certainly really engaging and that is probably why I am making the effort to opine.
    I do not really make it a regular habit of doing that.
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    sure of how you seem to unite the points which inturn help to make the actual
    conclusion. For the moment I will, no doubt subscribe to your issue however hope
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  33. Throughout the great pattern of things you get an A+ just for hard work.
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    the devil is in the details… And that couldn’t be more true in this article.
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    very convincing and that is probably why I am making the effort in order to opine.
    I do not make it a regular habit of doing that. Next, whilst I can easily notice a leaps in reasoning you
    make, I am not confident of exactly how you seem to
    connect your points that help to make the final result.
    For right now I shall yield to your point however wish in the near future you connect the dots better.

  34. Throughout this grand design of things you receive an A for effort.
    Where you misplaced us was in the details. As it is said, the devil
    is in the details… And it couldn’t be more true at this point.
    Having said that, allow me say to you just what did deliver
    the results. Your text can be rather engaging and that is most likely
    the reason why I am making an effort to opine. I
    do not make it a regular habit of doing that. 2nd, while I can easily
    see a jumps in reason you make, I am not necessarily
    confident of exactly how you appear to connect the points
    which inturn produce the conclusion. For now I shall yield to your point however hope in the future you
    connect your dots much better.

  35. Throughout this awesome scheme of things you
    actually secure an A with regard to effort and hard work.
    Exactly where you actually confused me was first on the facts.
    As they say, details make or break the argument.. And it could not be much more
    true in this article. Having said that, let me inform you what
    did work. Your authoring is definitely rather powerful and this is probably the reason why I am taking the effort in order to opine.
    I do not make it a regular habit of doing that. Secondly, even though I can notice a jumps in logic you come up with, I am not necessarily convinced of exactly how you seem
    to unite your points which in turn help to make the final result.
    For the moment I shall yield to your point however hope in the near future you link the facts much better.

  36. Throughout this awesome scheme of things you’ll get a B+ for hard work.
    Exactly where you actually misplaced me was on all the specifics.
    As as the maxim goes, details make or break the argument..
    And that could not be more true right here. Having said that, let me inform you just what
    did give good results. Your writing is certainly quite convincing and that is most likely why I am taking an effort in order to opine.
    I do not make it a regular habit of doing that. Secondly, whilst I can easily notice a jumps
    in reason you make, I am not convinced of just how you appear
    to connect your details which in turn help to make the actual conclusion. For
    the moment I shall subscribe to your position however wish in the
    near future you actually connect your dots better.

  37. In this awesome scheme of things you secure an A for hard work.

    Where exactly you misplaced me personally ended
    up being on all the specifics. You know, people say, the devil is in the details…
    And it couldn’t be much more correct here. Having said that, permit me tell you just what did deliver the results.
    The text can be extremely convincing which is possibly why I am taking the effort to
    comment. I do not make it a regular habit of doing
    that. Secondly, while I can notice a leaps in reasoning you
    make, I am not necessarily certain of just how you seem to unite your
    ideas that help to make the actual final result.
    For the moment I will, no doubt yield to your issue however
    wish in the future you actually link your dots much better.

  38. Throughout this grand scheme of things you actually secure an A+ for effort and hard work.
    Where you actually lost me was in the particulars.
    As it is said, details make or break the argument..
    And it could not be much more accurate at this point. Having said that, permit me inform you precisely
    what did work. Your text is certainly extremely
    convincing and this is probably why I am taking an effort in order to
    opine. I do not make it a regular habit of doing that. Next, while I
    can easily notice a jumps in reason you make, I am not necessarily sure of just how you seem to connect your
    details which make your final result. For the moment
    I shall yield to your position but wish in the near future
    you connect the dots much better.

  39. Throughout the great design of things you actually receive an A+ for hard work.
    Where exactly you lost everybody ended up
    being on the details. You know, they say, the devil
    is in the details… And that could not be much more
    correct in this article. Having said that, allow me tell you precisely what
    did give good results. The article (parts of it) can be highly persuasive which is possibly the
    reason why I am making the effort to opine. I do not
    really make it a regular habit of doing that. 2nd, while I can easily see the jumps in reason you
    make, I am not really certain of how you seem
    to unite the details which in turn produce the actual final result.

    For right now I will subscribe to your point however trust
    in the future you link your dots better.

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    The suggestions likewise served as the good way to recognize that most
    people have the same passion really like my own to grasp significantly
    more regarding this issue. I think there are millions of more pleasant times up front for many who browse through your website.

  42. I wanted to compose you one very little word in order to say thanks
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    people could have supplied for an e-book to generate some bucks on their
    own, principally considering the fact that you might have done it in the event you considered necessary.
    The points as well acted to provide a easy way to realize
    that other people online have similar keenness much like mine to know great deal more with regards to
    this matter. I am sure there are many more pleasant opportunities ahead for folks who look over your site.

  43. I intended to compose you a tiny word to give thanks the moment again for your personal
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    unreservedly precisely what most people would’ve distributed as an electronic book to make some profit for their own end, chiefly
    considering the fact that you might have tried
    it if you decided. The principles additionally acted as a fantastic way to comprehend other people have
    the identical keenness the same as my personal own to realize a great deal more in terms of
    this issue. I’m sure there are millions of more fun situations up front for
    many who take a look at your blog post.

  44. I needed to compose you this bit of remark to be able to say thanks a lot again for your breathtaking techniques you have provided on this site.
    It’s quite pretty open-handed of you giving easily just what most people could have offered for
    sale for an e book to help make some money on their own, most notably given that you might well have done it in case you considered
    necessary. Those ideas additionally acted as the fantastic way
    to fully grasp other people online have similar keenness just like my very own to realize whole lot
    more with respect to this problem. I think there are lots
    of more enjoyable periods ahead for folks who scan through your site.

  45. I intended to put you one little bit of remark to
    help give many thanks yet again about the gorgeous ideas you’ve
    discussed on this site. It’s simply surprisingly generous with you to grant
    extensively exactly what many of us would’ve offered for sale for an e-book to make some profit on their own, mostly seeing that you could have done
    it in the event you wanted. Those techniques also acted to
    become good way to realize that many people have the same interest like my
    own to see more and more on the subject of this matter.
    I am certain there are several more enjoyable times up front for those
    who discover your website.

  46. I wanted to send you the tiny observation just to thank you so much again with your
    exceptional information you’ve shared here. This
    has been certainly tremendously generous of you to allow
    extensively what some people might have sold as an ebook to end up making some bucks for themselves, even more so now that you might have done it in case you desired.
    These strategies likewise worked to become a great way to
    recognize that other individuals have similar eagerness much
    like mine to figure out significantly more in regard to this issue.
    I’m sure there are thousands of more fun moments
    in the future for those who read through your blog.

  47. Needed to create you a tiny note to finally say thanks
    a lot over again about the striking tricks you’ve shown here.
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